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Temple Gallery

Established 1959

St John the Forerunner from a <em>deesis</em> with silver basma - exhibited at the Temple Gallery, specialists in Russian icons

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UU029. St John the Forerunner from a deesis with silver basma

Russian, Yaroslavl
Late 18th century
Tempera on wood with kovcheg. Executed on a gold ground. Overlaid with a repoussé silver basma embossed with foliage. Marked with city hallmark, assayer's mark, 84 standard and master's mark.
36 x 29 cmClick here to convert metric size to imperial

£4,500Click here to convert price to USD or EUR

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Saint John the Forerunner holds the diskos, or paten (the object resembling a chalice) in his left hand. An Orthodox liturgical instrument, the diskos holds the Eucharistic bread (called agnets or amnos, meaning 'lamb') during the Divine Liturgy. A 19th century example from Moscow, which was once used in liturgical services, can be seen below (fig. a) [1].


Fig. a. Discos and Zvizdytsya. Gilt silver. Moscow, first half of the 19th century (from the Nikolayevsky-Pustynny Monastery)

In the middle of the diskos is the small naked figure of Christ blessing with his right hand, symbolising the Lamb of God of the Eucharist. John holds the chalice in his right hand together with a scroll with the partly abraded text: 'As Videkh i Svidelstvo Va Onen: Ce Agnetsbijhiy vzemlai Gryekhiy' (‘I saw and witnessed concerning him, behold the lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world’ John 1:29). The fact that Christ's body is shown - rather than the bread - signifies the Orthodox belief that the bread is the resurrected body of Christ. Also, the 7th century Council of Trullo had decreed against the symbolism of the 'lamb' because it had been superseded by the Incarnation[2]. Actual liturgical instruments would have depictions of Christ and other holy figures, or angelic beings, such as Cherubim, as we find in fig. a.

Speaking on a 10th century chalice that has an image of Christ Pantocrator at the bottom of the inner cup (see fig. b), Alexei Lidov states that this would have acted as 'a visible testimony of the Eucharistic miracle of the transubstantiation of wine into the blood of Christ'.[3] Our iconography is attempting a similar aim, but with the transubstantiation of the bread into the body of Christ.[4] What we are seeing is the invisible reality that matter hides, and thus functions as a visual aid to those participating in the liturgy.


Fig. b. The so-called “Chalice of Patriarchs”, with Christ the Pantocrator at the bottom, late 10th-early 11th c. Treasury of San Marco, Venice

John is shown holding Christ in the liturgical diskos as he prophesised and witnessed the coming of Christ, preparing 'the way of the Lord' (Mark 1:3). Hence he is sometimes called 'the Forerunner'.

Though the iconography touches on a profoundly Orthodox theme, its development is relatively late, starting in the mid-16th century in Russia and becoming popular in the 17th century. Yet it visually echoes the earlier iconography of John holding his own severed head in a dish (this iconography developed around 1300, for a 16th c. example, see fig. c), a reference to the biblical narrative of his beheading by Herod (Matt. 14:10; Mark 6:27-9; See also our icon of the 'Beheading of St John the Baptist' in this exhibition: No. 23). Some of the earliest iconographies of our subject directly reflect these icons, but replacing John's head with Christ's body (see fig. d and compare with fig. c).


Fig. c. St John the Baptist (Angel of the Wilderness), Russian, 1560's, Andrei Rublyov Museum, Moscow


Fig. d. St John the Baptist, 17th c. Ecclesiastical Academy, Moscow

Half-length icons of John holding a diskos, like our example, also developed in this period (see fig. e)


Fig. e. St John the Baptist, 17th c. Andrei Rublyov Museum, Moscow




Footnotes:-
1. For other examples of 19th century Russian liturgical instruments, see: Piatnitsky [ed.], Sinai, Byzantium, Russia, (London, St Catherine Foundation, 2000), p. 365-458
2. In other words, Christ becoming flesh makes symbols of him obsolete: the prophecy had been fulfilled and thus he should be shown in his human form. See Elizabeth Theokritoff [ed.], The Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 138
3. Alexei Lidov, The Temple Veil as a Spatial Icon Revealing an Image-Paradigm of Medieval Iconography and Hierotopy. Published online at: https://www.academia.edu/7559878/The_Temple_Veil_as_a_Spatial_Icon_Revealing_an_Image-Paradigm_of_Medieval_Iconography_and_Hierotopy
4. Transubstantiation' (in Greek: metousiosisis) is the theological term used to describe the change (substantially, yet not visibly) of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist.

Detail Images